We specialize in cross-border litigation and multi-jurisdictional investigations. We are experts in analyzing large, complex transactional data sets, with experience working on projects encompassing decades of data and transactions. We have delivered critical evidence to regulators and clients that rely on our experience in complex, long-tail transactional analysis, Anti-Bribery and Corruption (ABC) investigations, disputes, regulatory probes, disgorgements, sanctions, debarment, anti-money laundering and terror financing cases.

As a global leader in the industry, FRA provides the skills and knowledge required to advise our clients regarding data issues which arise from regional data protection as well as state and commercial secrecy laws. We have substantial experience in evaluating companies’ systems of internal controls and their books and records to provide useful analysis and recommendations for improvement.

While we have in-house financial and accounting expertise, we do not offer traditional financial audit or accounting advice and are therefore conflict-free, unlike many of our competitors. Moreover, we are regularly appointed as independent monitors by regulators or clients in order to evaluate and test the effectiveness of compliance programs.

Our results

Thought Leadership


Our Services

Anti-bribery and Corruption (ABC) Investigations

FRA is regularly retained to advise clients in ABC investigations, responding to regulatory probes, testing compliance programs, specifically for matters related to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), the UK Bribery Act (UKBA), the Sapin II, and other relevant global anti-corruption statutes.

We generally act as independent advisors in conducting ABC compliance reviews, as well as work alongside compliance and internal audit functions to supplement or test their work.

We take a data-driven and risk-based approach to minimize client costs and maximize resource investments, and encompass industry, operational and country-specific risks.

We always provide clear, professional and – above all – practical advice to our clients. Our team brings both real-world commercial experience as well as specialist professional knowledge in order to address the challenges which arise in corporate management roles and in successfully addressing complex issues.

Disgorgement and Complex Damages Calculations

FRA’s specialist team has more than 20 years of experience in performing complex calculations in financial settlements with regulators. We are regularly retained to support our clients with:

  • Profit Disgorgements
  • Penalty and Fines Quantifications
  • Damage Valuations
  • Affordability / ‘Ability-to-Pay’ calculations

FRA has conducted financial gain and profitability analyses to successfully reduce financial settlements with the US DOJ, SEC, OFAC, UKSFO, the Swiss authorities, and Brazilian and Dutch regulators (FIOD and OM).

Such engagements require an empirical approach to financial data, a strong understanding of accounting and reporting in international businesses, and an understanding of what approaches regulators will accept and/or have accepted in the past. We are deeply experienced in all three of these areas and often participate in multi-disciplinary teams with attorneys and client representatives to achieve successful outcomes. Our strength in data mining combined with strong accounting knowledge and financial modeling skills means we are able to provide empirical, robust, defensible analysis, frequently acting as testifying experts as well as consulting experts.

We have successfully made economic, financial and accounting arguments to exclude certain revenue items and/or include certain deductions resulting in significant reduction of the profitability figures which typically underpin regulatory fine calculations, and hence lower settlement amounts for our clients.


FRA has first-hand experience of the complexities and sensitivities arising from acting as and supporting a monitor. We also on occasion serve as the compliance monitor. The priority in such engagements is to build trust with the company while maintaining complete independence as well as managing regulatory demands and tight budgets. We provide rigorous testing of the existing controls to ensure their appropriateness with the aim of preventing future misconduct.

Our monitorship experience includes work on several high profile cases: we have been appointed to support DOJ, SEC, PCAOB, and New York Department of Financial Services (NYDFS)-appointed monitors, supplying a variety of services in FCPA, OFAC, FATCA, accounting standards, and environmental matters.

FRA is also currently supporting the DOJ-appointed monitor in accordance with the City of Ferguson Consent Decree, to bring about constructive and human rights oriented policing, as well as being appointed co-monitor in a Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) mandate, the first of its kind.

In such engagements, our work focuses on:

  • Evaluation of past typologies, testing of data sets, and remediation efforts;
  • Empirical testing of corporate governance, tone at the top and ethics;
  • Compliance reviews and interviews with key finance staff;
  • Auditing of policies and procedures;
  • Extensive transactional testing to assess potential “red flags”, compliance systems and identify areas for improvement; and
  • Reporting on remediation as well as progress per settlement agreements.

Banking & Finance Compliance (AML, BSA, Sanctions, and Counter Terror Financing)

FRA was founded on the basis of our experience in complex, long-tail financial transactional analysis, and we have developed a strong expertise in advising clients on Anti-Money Laundering (AML) issues, performing extensive Asset Tracing exercises, advising on Sanctions / embargo violation investigations (OFAC, EU, etc.), and provide expert witness testimony in Counter-Terror Financing (CTF) cases.

FRA has a dedicated financial services team that regularly works with financial institutions in analyzing transactional data, following transactional flows, and detecting fraud and compliance failures. Several members of our leadership team are also former investment bankers or traders with global market experience (Lazard, HSBC, Deutsche Bank, JP Morgan, Citibank) in London, New York, Paris and Asian markets.

Our team is familiar with banking systems and data mining, which combined with strong accounting knowledge and financial modeling skills, enables FRA to provide crucial evidence in high profile, multi-jurisdictional matters. Our team members frequently provide expert reporting and expert testimony in financial disputes and compliance matters.

Specifically we advise on:

  • AML, CTF, and OFAC and sanctions-related compliance;
  • Data mining, analytics and testing as part of internal investigations or regulatory investigations;
  • Testing and reviews for NYDFS-appointed monitorships;
  • Tax (FATCA, UK VAT, etc.);
  • Affordability analyses (for negotiations relating to penalties);
  • Testing of interdiction and other compliance-related software and reporting;
  • Designing internal audit processes;
  • Third party due-diligence;
  • Pro-active AML compliance; and
  • Frozen asset reviews.

Contact our Finance & Banking Team

M&A Due-Diligence and Compliance Reviews

FRA is regularly retained to assist companies in developing robust pre- and post-acquisition (M&A) due-diligence reviews, focusing on ABC and sanctions due-diligence, counter-parties, and investment targets, for issues surrounding vicarious and successor liability.

The underlying objective of our M&A reviews is to determine the state of the target’s books and records and its internal controls – allowing the acquirer to identify high-risk areas and gaps, and prioritize due-diligence efforts post acquisition. Our compliance reviews are nuanced, targeted, and focus on transactional testing. We ensure that policies are being implemented, and identify where improvements are required for a robust ABC environment.

Our work has provided valuable information for acquisitions and divestitures. FRA investigations have led to modification of price or terms, deal abandonment, changes in post-acquisition plans, warranties and more.

Third Party Due-Diligence

Third party relationships have become a crucial aspect of ABC investigations, as regulators demand full compliance with relevant laws from third parties and vendors and punish parent companies for non-compliance.

FRA works with clients to determine and address the risks posed from third party relationships and mitigate potential sanctions, focusing on key areas, such as:

  • Anti-Bribery and Corruption (FCPA, UKBA, Sapin II etc.);
  • Anti-Money Laundering (AML);
  • Sanctions (OFAC, EU, etc.); and
  • Tax compliance and reporting (FATCA, UK failure to prevent tax evasion, etc.).

We also work with clients to design and evaluate compliance programs and test the operating effectiveness of existing controls, by identifying gaps and prioritize enhancements / remediation efforts.

To proactively mitigate risk, FRA has designed Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems for companies with significant geographical footprints and third party relationships, to map red flags and mitigate risks through the latest data analytics tools.

Tax Investigations (FATCA, UK VAT, etc.)

We conduct tax related investigations in a variety of contexts: from the US DOJ Swiss Banks Program, to FATCA, UK VAT, or transfer-pricing issues.  We have decades of experience working with clients in analyzing transactional data, following transaction flows, and detecting compliance failures.

We focus on:

  • Tax investigations, compliance program design, monitoring and testing;
  • Data mining for analysis and presentation to counsel, regulators, and enforcement agencies;
  • Transactional lookbacks for OFAC and other sanctions related investigations and regulatory responses;
  • Acting as Independent Examiners (IE) or supporting IEs with forensic accounting, data mining and data analytics at financial institutions (for example, under the Swiss Banks Program); and
  • Provide expert support to NYDFS monitors for FATCA investigative elements

Arbitration Support

FRA is strongly positioned to provide reliable, independent analyses for claimants and respondents in investor-state and commercial arbitrations. Our experience in a variety of industries, mixed with our expertise in accounting and forensics, allows us to provide consulting and expert testimony on technical accounting as well as on complex financial issues.

Our arbitration experience includes:

  • Financial gain and profitability analysis;
  • Equity valuation;
  • Affordability analyses (balance sheet, cash flow, and P&L analysis for negotiations relating to penalties);
  • Contractual dispute resolution before Commercial courts and arbitral tribunals (ad hoc, ICC and ICSID); and
  • Regulatory litigation before state courts and global regulatory bodies (DOJ, SEC and US Senate).

Our Team

Toby Duthie Who's Who Legal Award Win
Toby Duthie, Founding Partner

Toby won Investigations Forensic Accountant of the Year 2018 at the Who’s Who Legal (“WWL”) Awards and is recognized in WWL Investigations, Consulting Experts, Thought Leader and Global Elite. One lawyer comments in WWL that “he is the most articulate financial expert [they] have ever retained” and another source described him as “tremendously impressive, he […]

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Frances McLeod, Founding Partner

Frances McLeod is a founding partner of FRA and head of its US offices. She is a former investment banker and has over 25 years of experience advising diverse clients on sanctions, anti-corruption, fraud, internal controls, asset tracing, and money laundering issues. Frances is recognized in GIR’s Women in Investigations 2018 publication, which profiles the […]

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Stacy Fresch, forensic accountant
Stacy Fresch, Partner

Stacy Fresch is a Partner in FRA’s Washington DC office. She has over 20 years of private and public sector experience providing advice on financial accounting and reporting matters as well as related auditing issues. Stacy is an expert in managing large scale domestic and international financial and forensic accounting engagements, including assisting clients respond […]

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Emma Hodges fra, forensic accountant
Emma Hodges, Partner

Emma Hodges, a Partner at FRA, is an experienced forensic and investigative accountant with over 14 years of experience conducting multi-jurisdictional forensic accounting reviews and investigations, internal controls reviews, and financial statement audits. She works closely with law firms in both the UK and US, often in relation to matters concerning bribery and corruption compliance […]

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Yousr Khalil, forensic accountant
Yousr Khalil, Partner

Yousr Khalil is a Partner at FRA and co-leads the Paris office with Senior Director, Caroline Fagard. Yousr is a forensic accountant with over 16 years’ experience in matters involving fraud and corruption, government contracts litigation, internal investigation, due diligence, compliance, and governance and risk management in the US, Latin America, Europe, North Africa, the […]

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Derek Patterson
Derek Patterson, Principal

Derek Patterson is a Principal at FRA’s London Office and head of its Nordic business. He has in-depth experience in structuring and delivering forensic accounting and electronic data services across multi-jurisdiction investigations, assessing and testing compliance programs, and in supporting complex dispute resolutions. Derek is recognized in Who’s Who Legal Investigations, Consulting Experts, Thought Leader […]

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Rik Workman, forensic accountant
Rik Workman, Partner

Rik Workman, a Partner at FRA, has more than 25 years of forensic accounting experience. His assignments and expertise include anti-bribery and corruption, regulatory investigations, potential sanctions violations, global monitorships, and disgorgement and penalty calculations. Since joining FRA in 2011, he has led investigative teams in the UK, the US, Brazil, Colombia, Italy, the Middle […]

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Weng Yee Ng, Director

Weng Yee Ng is a Director at FRA. She holds more than 16 years of experience in external and internal audit and forensic accounting. Her expertise includes compliance reviews, internal investigations, litigation support (both civil and criminal), risk assessments, evaluation of compliance programs, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) monitorships for both the DOJ and SEC, […]

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